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Gray Anatomy 38th Edition Pdf


Gray's Anatomy is a reference book of human anatomy written by Henry Gray, illustrated by Henry Vandyke Carter, and first published in London in 1858. It has gone through multiple revised editions and the current edition, the 42nd (October 2020), remains a standard reference, often considered "the doctors' bible".[1]




Gray Anatomy 38th Edition Pdf



The current editions also contain histology, embryology, and pathology subjects that complements anatomical knowledge.[1] The newest edition is the 42nd edition. The more popular 41st edition of Gray's Anatomy was published on 25 September 2015 by Elsevier in both print and online versions, and is the first edition to have enhanced online content including anatomical videos and a bonus Gray's imaging library. The 41st edition also has 24 specially invited online commentaries on contemporary anatomical topics such as advances in electron and fluorescent microscopy; the neurovascular bundles of the prostate; stem cells in regenerative medicine; the anatomy of facial aging; and technical aspects and applications of diagnostic radiology.


Background The exact mechanisms responsible for migraine remain unknown, although it has been proposed that changes in brainstem anatomy and function, even between attacks, may contribute to the initiation and maintenance of headache during migraine attacks. The aim of this investigation is to use brainstem-specific analyses of anatomical and diffusion weighted images to determine if the trigeminal system displays altered structure in individuals with migraine. Methods Voxel-based morphometry of T1-weighted anatomical images (57 controls, 24 migraineurs) and diffusion tensor images (22 controls, 24 migraineurs) were used to assess brainstem anatomy in individuals with migraine compared with controls. Results We found grey matter volume decreases in migraineurs in the spinal trigeminal nucleus and dorsomedial pons. In addition, reduced grey matter volume and increased free water diffusivity occurred in areas of the descending pain modulatory system, including midbrain periaqueductal gray matter, dorsolateral pons, and medullary raphe. These changes were not correlated to migraine frequency, duration, intensity or time to next migraine. Conclusion Brainstem anatomy changes may underlie changes in activity that result in activation of the ascending trigeminal pathway and the perception of head pain during a migraine attack. 350c69d7ab


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