Diamond Tools Ultra Serial Number VERIFIED
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Diamond Tools Ultra Serial Number
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This paper focuses on a brief review of the technology for cutting with diamond tools. No attempt has been made to be all inclusive. We first address the current understanding of the mechanics that govern the process including the resulting forces, energies and the size effect, forces when cutting single crystals, and resulting cutting temperatures. Efforts to model the process are then discussed. The workpiece material response when cutting ductile and brittle materials is also included. Then, we present the state of the art in machine tools, diamond tools and tool development, various cutting configurations used, and some examples of diamond machined surfaces and components. A section on the measurement of topography, form, and subsurface damage is also included.
In one of the first experimental investigations of the resulting temperatures in diamond cutting, Iwata et al.  measured both the cutting temperature and workpiece temperature when diamond flycutting oxygen-free Cu (OFC) with both a single crystal diamond tool and a sintered diamond tool. They used the Cu workpiece and a constantan wire as a dynamic thermocouple to measure the cutting temperature. They found that when cutting with a small depth of cut and feedrate, the sharpness of the cutting edge and the grain size of the sintered diamond had a large effect on the cutting temperature. When diamond face turning an Al alloy, Moriwaki et al.  found that the tool shank temperature rise can reach up to 10 C. The temperature rise of the workpiece was found to be much lower than that of the tool. For high-speed quasi-orthogonal diamond cutting of OFC Cu, Moriwaki et al.  found that the workpiece temperature at the cutting zone, as measured by a dynamic thermocouple, could reach 270 C above the average workpiece temperature when cutting with a 1 µm depth of cut at 4.3 m/s. Ueda et al.  used a two-color pyrometer to measure the tool temperature on the rake face when diamond cutting Cu and Al. For a 10 µm depth of cut, they found maximum rake face temperatures of 190 C for Al and 220 C for Cu. In a study on ultraprecision raster milling of Al 6061, Wang et al.  proposed a new method to quantify heat generation by cutting. They used the time-precipitates-temperature characteristics of Al 6061 alloy to quantify the temperature of the workpiece.
Ultraprecision machine tools with a sophisticated, dedicated, and demanding design are one of the major prerequisites for performing ultraprecision machining. The fundamental bases for precision design and mechanical accuracy were described by Moore  in his classic text. The historical evolution of ultraprecision equipment and machine tools, and in general, the discipline of precision engineering has been put forth by Evans [2,52]. Recently, Preuss  described the techniques involved in diamond machining from a production engineering perspective. Masuzawa  described the two conditions that should be met when considering a range of micromachining processes, namely, unit removal and equipment precision. When considering the design of ultraprecision machine tools, the stringent requirements that must be met are (1) thermal stability, (2) precision spindle bearings and linear guides, and (3) high resolution of linear and rotary motions . Specific features of such dedicated machine tools therefore include a compact size, enclosures for temperature controlled air circulation, hydrostatic air bearings and guide ways or hydrostatic oil bearings with low friction , special motors and specific encoders for nanometric tool positioning, and high thermal stability .
The machinability of the workpiece material factors into the overall performance of the ultraprecision machine tool. Typical materials that can be diamond machined are aluminum and copper alloys, electroless nickel-phosphor plating and polymers. As diamond machining technology developed, it was observed that hard and brittle materials could also be successfully machined including both single crystal and polycrystalline materials such as silicon  and germanium . Even steel, which exhibits chemical instability wear with diamond , has shown the possibility to be machined with diamond tools [60,61], although tool wear is still a limitation.
The most commonly used tool material for ultraprecision machining is single crystal diamond which exhibits several unique properties especially well-suited for extreme precision cutting including high hardness, high thermal conductivity, high wear resistance, and low friction . Equally important is the capability of single crystal diamond to be lapped and polished to achieve sharp and precise cutting edges with radii down to a few tens of nanometers. There are two basic types of single crystal diamond tools used in diamond machining, viz., (1) radius tools with a circular or elliptic nose (depending on the rake angle and the shape of the clearance face) for turning and milling applications and (2) v-shaped tools, mainly used in prism cutting, as shown in Fig. 7 . In addition to lapping and polishing to obtain the needed geometry of the diamond tool, focused ion beam machining has also been used to prepare the diamond tool edge .
Despite the high hardness of diamond, single crystal diamond tools show signs of wear when machining all materials. Types of wear that have been observed include abrasive wear, adhesive wear, microfracture, cleavage, and chemical wear. The relative importance of each type of wear depends on the workpiece material and cutting conditions. Uddin et al.  found that in the diamond turning of 111 silicon, abrasive wear and adhesive wear were the dominant tool wear types with some chemical wear also taking place. Yoshino et al.  found that in creating v-grooves in quartz glass with diamond tools, abrasive wear was the dominant tool wear type with some adhesive wear also taking place. In the raster milling of copper, Yin et al.  found that microfracture was the dominant tool wear type because of the impact of the tool and workpiece. Chemical wear associated with machining ferrous materials has long been recognized. Chemical wear consists of diffusion of carbon atoms from the diamond into the workpiece, and to graphitization of the diamond. It has been found to be associated with the number of unpaired d-shell electrons . In the diamond turning of 3Cr2NiMo steel, Zou et al.  observed graphitization of the rake face of the tool and diffusion of carbon into the workpiece. To reduce the graphitization of the tool during machining of commercially pure titanium and the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V, Zareena and Veldhuis  coated the tool with perfluoropolyether (PFPE). To measure the wear of tools, Evans et al.  proposed making plunge cuts in a reference material periodically while machining the part. The plunge cut is then measured with a scanning white light interferometer and compared with a plunge cut made with the new tool. To directly measure the tool edge geometry, Lucca and Seo  demonstrated the use of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) (see Sec. 4). It is well known that the wear of diamond is anisotropic. In one of the first works to quantify this effect, Wilks and Wilks  measured the material removal rate (MRR) of diamond when lapped or ground. Different crystallographic planes were examined as were different directions. Figure 8 shows a summary of the results where the MRR is a relative value normalized to lapping or grinding on the (100) plane in the  cutting direction. Note there is a two order of magnitude difference in the material removal rate for the (100) plane,  direction compared with the (110) plane,  direction.
Servo machining is used to significantly extend the flexibility of diamond turning. By modulating the cutting depth dynamically according to the radial and angular position of the surface to be machined, surfaces and structures beyond those with rotational symmetry can be realized in a turning process. Depending on the frequency of the modulation and the device used, these processes are referred to as Slow Slide Servo (SSS) diamond turning (usually using the machine slides) or Fast Tool Servo (FTS) diamond turning. Slow Slide and Fast Tool Servo machining are the most commonly used methods for generating non-rotationally symmetric optical surfaces. Fast Tool Servos have been developed in various configurations depending on the intended purpose. For example, Lu and Trumper  developed an ultra-fast tool servo device which was used for the diamond turning of contoured surfaces. A long-range tool servo was developed  to extend the stroke of the tool displacement by using a voice coil driven actuator based on a flexure mechanism equipped with a laser interferometer feedback system. A two degree of freedom fast tool servo was developed for the diamond turning of freeform surfaces . A nano-fast tool servo (nFTS) was specifically developed for the diamond turning of diffractive microstructures , and the influence of different workpiece material properties on process forces, burr and chip formation, and surface finish was examined. It was found that burr and chip formation were predominantly influenced by the machining strategy. The same nFTS device was used to generate submicron optical structures (diffractive optical elements) for ultraviolet applications . Figure 13 shows a white light interferometric image of a holographic structure that was diamond turned into a copper-nickel-zinc surface using the nFTS. A piezo-actuated dual-axial fast tool servo (DA-FTS) was developed for the diamond turning of micro-structured surfaces into single crystal silicon. By combining the concepts of fast/slow tool servo and fly cutting, hierarchical micro-nanostructures were deterministically generated. In the process, a complex shaped primary surface was generated by cutting, and a secondary nanostructure by residual tool marks through actively controlling the tool loci . 350c69d7ab